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for more than 8,500 years. Pronunced - Gaadian (Gaurdian) called the Sons of Light.
Ancient Sumerian ± 4500 BC: Gá = I, myself; my, | Di(e) = Decide(To be like), | An = Heaven. My Life, Spiritual Being Understood. This was the Golden Age
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Gádian History En Gedi

En Gedi

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Chalcolithic Temple

In the Chalcolithic period (4th millennium BC), a temple was erected at the Ein Gedi oasis which served as a cultic center for the nomadic tribes of the region. The temple compound was built on a rock terrace above the spring. It consisted of several separate single-roomed stone structures, built around a large courtyard which was surrounded by a wall. The temple complex was reached via a gateway, consisting of a square chamber with benches. The temple itself stood opposite, on the other side of the courtyard. It was rectangular in shape (20 x 2.5 m.), with stone-built benches along its walls and an altar on which animal bones and ash were found, testifying to its use as a sacrificial altar.

Only the structural remains of the abandoned temple were uncovered; researchers believe that the priests of the temple fled in the face of approaching danger, taking with them the many cult artifacts accumulated during generations of use. The temple was never used again, but due to the arid desert conditions it has been well preserved to the present day.

En Gedi

The earliest remains at En Gedi are of a temple from the Chalcolithic Period (about 4000 - 3150 B.C.). Archaeologist believe that this is proof that En Gedi supported a significant settlement at that time. The "Cave of Treasure" in the Nahal Mishmar was excavated by P. Bar-Adon and is thought to be connected with this temple. The cave is approximately six miles south of En Gedi. A hoard of extremely well preserved artifacts was found in the cave, most of which were made of copper. It has been suggested that the articles were used in the temple rituals at En Gedi and were hid in the cave for safe keeping.

Ein Gedi is an oasis on the western shore of the Dead Sea, the lowest point on earth, some 400 m. below sea level. Extreme heat and aridity prevail in this desert region throughout most of the year. But perennial fresh water springs (Ein is Hebrew for spring) flow down from the high cliffs of the Judean Desert and have made permanent settlement and agriculture possible since ancient times.

Ein Gedi is mentioned in many historical sources and the abundant finds from archeological excavations which have been conducted since the 1960s make it possible to trace the long history of this unique place.

Also known as Tel Goren, Tell el-Jurn, Tell Jurn, 'Ain Jidi, 'Ein Jidi, 'En Gedi, En-gedi, Eggadi, Engaddi, Engedi, Hazazon Tamar, Hazazon-tamar, Hazazontamar, Hazezontamar

En Gedi is the largest oasis along the western shore of the Dead Sea. The springs here have allowed nearly continuous inhabitation of the site since the Chalcolithic period. The area was allotted to the tribe of Judah, and was famous in the time of Solomon (Josh 15:62). Today the Israeli kibbutz of En Gedi sits along the southern bank of the Nahal Arugot.

Josephus praised En Gedi for its palm trees and balsam, and the writer of Ecclesiasticus spoke of wisdom that was exalted like a palm tree in En Gedi" (24:14). One day, the prophet Ezekiel predicted, fishermen would line the shores of the Dead Sea by En Gedi (47:10).

David's Flight from Saul

Around 1000 B.C., En Gedi served as one of the main places of refuge for David as he fled from Saul. David "dwelt in strongholds at En Gedi" (1 Sam. 23:29). En Gedi means literally "the spring of the kid (goat)." Evidence exists that young ibex have always lived near the springs of En Gedi. One time when David was fleeing from King Saul, the pursuers searched the "Crags of the Ibex" in the vicinity of En Gedi. In a cave near here, David cut off the corner of Saul's robe (1 Sam 24).

Chalcolithic Temple

The earliest remains at En Gedi are of a temple from the Chalcolithic Period (about 4000 - 3150 B.C.). Archaeologist believe that this is proof that En Gedi supported a significant settlement at that time. The "Cave of Treasure" in the Nahal Mishmar was excavated by P. Bar-Adon and is thought to be connected with this temple. The cave is approximately six miles south of En Gedi. A hoard of extremely well preserved artifacts was found in the cave, most of which were made of copper. It has been suggested that the articles were used in the temple rituals at En Gedi and were hid in the cave for safe keeping.

Historical and Biblical Significance

Evidence of terrace farming dates to the Iron Age. When the natural water supply was harnessed and utilized to irrigate crops, Engedi became an active settlement. Early in the biblical record, Engedi is referred to as Hazazon-tamar, meaning "the pruning of palms" (Gen 14:7; 2 Chr 20:2).

In this beautiful oasis with a natural camouflage of thick vegetation and numerous caves for shelter, King David found refuge from Saul (1 Sam 23:29). Engedi was where David spared Saul?s life, demonstrating his mercy, compassion, and obedience to God?s will (1 Samuel 24; 26).

Ammon, Moab, and Edom invaded Judah through Engedi at the time of Jehoshaphat?s reign, ascending to the hill country of Judah by way of "the ascent of Ziz" (2 Chr 20:16), a route that passed near Engedi.

In the Song of Solomon, the speaker uses descriptions of the flora and fauna of Engedi to depict the beauty of his lover (1:14).

Let's now examine some sample records of the Sumerians. First, here is an excerpt of the story of "The Huluppu-Tree" mentioned earlier, taken from the website http://faculty.gvsu.edu/websterm/SumerianMyth.htm :

  • In the first days when everything needed was brought into being,
  • In the first days when everything needed was properly nourished,
  • When bread was baked in the shrines of the land,
  • And bread was tasted in the homes of the land,
  • When heaven had moved away from the earth,
  • And earth had separated from heaven,
  • And the name of man was fixed;
  • When the Sky God, An, had carried off the heavens,
  • And the Air God, Enlil, had carried off the earth . . . ?

And here is a Sumerian King List from a surviving clay tablet dated by the scribe who wrote it in the reign of King Utukhegal of Erech (Uruk), taken from the website http://www.csun.edu/~hcfll004/sumking.html (see also the Sumerian King List at http://www-etcsl.orient.ox.ac.uk/section2/tr211.htm ):

"After kingship had descended from heaven, Eridu became the seat of kingship. In Eridu Aululim reigned 28,800 years as king. Alalgar reigned 36,000 years. Two kings, reigned 64,800 years. Eridu was abandoned and its kingship was carried off to Bad-tabira. . . .

The Ur Temple

The Ziggurat was built as a place of worship, dedicated to the moon god Nanna (or Suen. The name Nanna is Sumerian for "illuminator.", in the Sumerian city of Ur in ancient Mesopotamia. The temple, a huge stepped platform, was constructed approximately in the 21st century BC by king Ur-Namma. In Sumerian times it was called Etemennigur. Today, after more than 4000 years, the ziggurat is still well preserved in large parts, and partially reconstructed, as the only major remainder of Ur in present-day southern Iraq).

The White Temple

This temple was erected at Warka or Uruk (Sumer, probably about 300 B.C.It stood on a brick terrace, formed by the construction of successive buildings on the site (the Ziggurat). The top was reached by a staircase. The temple measured 22 x 17 meters (73 x 57 feet). Access to the temple was through three doors, the main located at its southern side.)

The Square Temple, The Oval Temple, The Royal Cemetery of Ur, The Pyramids, The Sphinx

Village at Tel Goren

During the biblical period, Ein Gedi and the surrounding desert, known as the Wilderness of Ein Gedi, were part of the territory of the Tribe of Judah. David sought refuge from King Saul at Ein Gedi. (1 Samuel 24:1)

The first permanent settlement was built on the low hill, Tel Goren, at the end of the monarchic period (second half of the 7th century BCE). The houses of the small village were built close together on terraces; each consisted of two rooms and a courtyard. In them were large clay vats for the storage of drinking water or liquids made from special plants growing in the area. Royal seal impressions, and others bearing personal names, as well as a hoard of silver pieces were found in the ruins of the village, indicating wealth and economic importance.

During the Persian period (5th-4th centuries BCE) the village grew in area. Among the buildings was a prominent, large structure (550 sq.m.), probably two stories high. It had many rooms, courtyards and storerooms in which numerous artifacts, including royal seal impressions were found. These attest to the continuing importance of the village.

In the Hasmonean and Herodian periods (first century BCE to first century CE) the Jewish settlement at Ein Gedi thrived, expanded and became a royal estate. At Tel Goren, a well-fortified citadel was built to protect the village and its agricultural products against raiding nomads. At this time Ein Gedi expanded and spread to the low, flat hill at the foot of Tel Goren. Ein Gedi was destroyed and abandoned during the First Jewish Rebellion against Rome (66-70 CE).

In renewed excavations, beginning in 1996, some 30 stone-built cells, clustered around a small spring, were found northwest of Tel Goren. The excavator suggests that this might have been a monastic site of the Essene sect, whose members lived in isolated communities in the desert near the Dead Sea during the Roman period.

During the Bar Kochba Revolt (132-135 CE), Ein Gedi was an important outpost of the rebels, as recorded in the Bar Kochba letters found in the Dead Sea area. Later, a Roman garrison was stationed at Ein Gedi.

During the Roman and Byzantineperiods (2nd-6th century), the oasis was an imperial estate and the settlement at En-Gedi reached the peak of its prosperity. Eusebius, 4th century bishop of Caesarea, describes Ein Gedi as a "very large Jewish village." In the course of excavations, remains of dwellings, water installations and shops along streets, were uncovered. During this period, stone terraces were constructed on the hillsides and a sophisticated water system, including storage pools and a network of irrigation channels, was developed. These measures, initiated by the central administration, made for expanded, efficient and intensive cultivation of tropical plants and the production of perfumes and medicines. Especially famous and costly was Balsam, a perfume produced from a plant that grew only in this region. To protect the cultivated areas and to control the trade route, a fortress and watch towers were built.

The Synagogue

The synagogue at Ein Gedi dates from the Roman-Byzantine period, but it underwent several changes in the course of its use.

When first built at the beginning of the 3rd century, it was a modest, trapezoidal structure. In its northern wall, facing Jerusalem, were two openings. The floor was of simple white mosaic with a swastika pattern in black tesserae in the center. This pattern has been interpreted as a decorative motif or as a good luck symbol.

The synagogue underwent far-reaching renovations during the fourth century: The opening in the center of the northern wall was blocked and made into a square niche which probably contained a wooden Torah ark; along the opposite southern side a three-stepped bench was built; the building was divided by two rows of square pillars into a central hall with two aisles; the entrance was through three openings in the western wall.

In the mid 5th century, the synagogue underwent a further change, but its trapezoidal shape was preserved. Its dimensions were now 16 m. on the western side, 13.5 m. on the eastern side, with a width of 12.5 m. and it was two stories high. A platform (bema) containing a semi-circular niche surrounded by a chancel screen was added to the northern side of the building facing Jerusalem. The whole interior of the synagogue and the pillars were covered with white plaster and painted decorations and a new, colored mosaic floor was laid. The central hall contained a mosaic carpet decorated with a pattern of four-petalled flowers; in the center is a circle with four birds and on the corners of the outer, square frame are pairs of peacocks. The decoration opposite the bema included three seven-branched menorot (candelabra).

The floor of the western aisle, through which one entered the prayer hall, included five inscriptions. These include an Aramaic inscription mentioning the local community as well as private donors who contributed toward the construction and maintenance of the synagogue. One inscription also includes a warning and a curse:

"Warnings to those who commit sins causing dissension in the community, passing malicious information to the gentiles, or revealing the secrets of the town.

The one whose eyes roam over the entire earth and sees what is concealed will uproot this person and his seed from under the sun and all the people will say, Amen". Selah.

Two inscriptions in Hebrew relate to Jewish tradition. One notes the names of the thirteen fathers of the world according to 1 Chronicles l:l-4: Adam, Seth, Enosh, Kenan, Mehalalel, Jared, Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech, Noah, Shem, Ham and Japheth.

Another lists the names of the twelve signs of the zodiac and the twelve months of the Hebrew calender; the three patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; and the names of the three companions of Daniel: Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah; and a blessing: Peace upon Israel.

The synagogue was destroyed by fire, probably during the reign of the Emperor Justinian (second half of the 6th century), a period of Jewish persecution. Among the items in the destruction debris was a unique find: a 30 cm. high seven-branched candelabrum made of bronze.

The synagogue building has recently been restored and a huge, protective tent covers it, enabling visitors to enjoy this beautiful synagogue of the Jewish community which once lived at Ein Gedi.

The Tel Goren excavations, 1961-1965, were headed by B. Mazar on behalf of the Hebrew University and the Israel Exploration Society; the Synagogue was excavated 1970-1972, under the direction of D. Barag and Y. Porath, on behalf of the Hebrew University, the Israel Exploration Society and the Israel Department of Antiquities (today, the Israel Antiquities Authority); renewed excavations at Ein Gedi were conducted by Y. Hirschfeld on behalf of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the Israel Exploration Society.

That this Name is to be revealed only to a man who stands in the middle of his life, who is pious and modest, who never gives way to anger and to drink, who is not obstinate. Whoever knows that Name and preserves it in purity is beloved in heaven and beloved upon earth; is well considered by man and inherits both worlds.

The Rites of Faith as handed down to us through the blessing of Gudea, to Jacob.

Later, David wanted to hold a census, to find out how many Israelites lived in his land. Unfortunately, he did not observe the Jewish law for making a census, i.e. that you should not count each person, you should collect `Machatsita Shekel', or a half a shekel from each man, and count how much money you have. G-d became angered at David's disobedience, and sent a plague. When 70,000 people had already died, David prayed to G-d to punish him alone, and spare the people. G-d stopped the plague, and told the prophet Gad to go to David and tell him to establish an altar on the threshing floor of Aruanah the Jebusite. Aruanah wished to gift the threshing floor to the king, but David insisted on buying it, and paid fifty shekels. It so happened that this threshing floor was at the very top of Mount Moriah, where Avrahamtried to sacrifice Yitzchak (or Ishmael in the Muslim tradition), and so this was where the Temple would be established.

Jerusalem used to be named Jebus or "threshing floor".

David then prayed to God to stop the pestilence. God appeared to him there, it was on the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite. That was where the temple of Solomon was built, in memory of that event.

MT 22:32 I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob God is not the God of the dead, but of the living.


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A lot of people have asked me, "why do all this", my only anwer to them is this "When you can know the strength and charcter of your soul, you will become what you are currently being taught or guided by, good or bad, it is you".

This is the "Third" attempt at defining Man's relationship with their Eternal Father, the "First" attempt was with Adam, the "Second" attempt was with Jesus, both failed to bring changes to the way man (people) thought of their relationship with God.

Becoming a member of the Gadian Society will give you the opportunity to associate with others who have come to an understanding of their own divinity, through reaching a common awareness of their own inherent nature and divine purpose.

You will not be able to recognise those who have come to this understanding as we have no special clothing, public ceremonies or badge of recognition. It can only be felt by those who recognise their own divinity.

This knowledge has been passed on for generations to all people regardless of birth or status, as it by a persons character that you shall know them.

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