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In the researching of this book I had to find out about ancient civilizations, how and where these people lived, I had to establish a timeline and chronology for the foundations which became the principles and beliefs of these societies.
I began with the study of the ancient myths that told us of civilizaions of great age from which we have come, of our ancestors and how it was with their principles and beliefs that led to our being.
The first point of study was with the great flood, if all mankind had been destroyed except for Noah and his family, then there should be a central point to begin, that of where the ark came to rest. This had to be proven to have existed in many cultures who had kept records of this event, the oldest record I could find was from ancient Mesopetainia called the “Epic of Gilgamesh”, this story told us of a great flood and was in support of the Bibles Noah.
In myths this place where the ark came to rest, was known as the “Rainbow on the Mountain”, for it was written when the ark came to rest, God put a rainbow in the sky to promise never to flood the world again, this place later became represented by the “Chevron” the upsidedown “V” for the mountain and a “Circle/Arc” above it for the rainbow. I had to establish a fact or fiction to this myth.
After the flood we should find acient cities buried under the silt, using the Bible as a guide I went in search of these, I looked through the internet, mostly wikipedia to find this information, I had to know what civilizations came from this time, or what societies have inherited this story.
The oldest and largest known separate human cemetery in ALL of northern Europe - dated continuously from ca. 7000 BC to 3000 BC - was excavated in Latvia in recent years.
Zvejnieki and Zagorskis
The excavations were made at Zvejnieki in northern Latvia by F. Zagorskis in the 1960's and 1970's and published by him as "Zvejnieku akmens laikmeta kapulauks", Zinatne, Riga, 1987
(See Gimbutas, p. 144 in the German version of "Civilization"). Significantly, this cemetery is located near the largest lake in Latvia, known as "The Lake of the Literate Ones",
literally "The Lake of the Lett-erers" (in Latvian, Burtnieku Ezers).
First Full Human Burials
This places the Latvian cemetary at Zvejnieki on a chronological par with Catal Huyuk in Anatolia and Jericho in Mesopotamia (Gimbutas, p. 283) - with one great difference.
Prior to about 8000 B.C. there was apparently no burial of bodies anywhere in Europe among humans at all - they were probably simply left out for the vultures or burned.
Between about 8000 BC and 6500 BC at places like Catal Huyuk and Jericho, only the skulls (sometimes all the bones) of the deceased were buried indoors under the house floor, and at Jericho, the eyes were replaced symbolically with mussel shells.
Origins of Mummification?
In Latvia, for the first time among civilized humans in Europe, - at least as far as the archaeological record goes - the entire body (Latvian KERMENIS = body (root of GERMAN?) is now buried in toto in a separate area set out for this purpose and the eyes are replaced with pieces of amber.
The skeletons are found buried lengthwise, clothed in the "cocoon" of animal skins and painted or dusted with ochre - mummification had to start somewhere - as a means of preserving
the body from decay. The dead are buried together with offerings of necklaces and amulets made from the teeth of elk, deer, and wild boar.
Later, these amulets and necklaces are also made of the teeth of the dog, wolf, fox, marten and badger.
Carved Symbols as First Writing Concepts of the Soul
Some amulets are made of pearls or amber, and some are animal bones sculpted in the form of elk and birds - the first "symbols" as precursors of writing?
Bird skeletons are found in the graves, indicating that these were offerings for the deceased,
perhaps to allow the soul to "fly" to heaven.
Ancient Baltic Culture Marked by Customs similar to Pharaonic Egypt
It is not just the Baltic languages which are old, it is not just the ancient Dainas (Baltic historical astronomical verses) - more predominant in Latvia than in Lithuania - which are ancient, but it is now clear that also Baltic burial customs date far back, and are very similar to those found in ancient Egypt.
Human reverence for the dead through burial underground together with offerings for the deceased had to start SOMEWHERE. Based on Zvejnieki, the oldest known place for this in Europe - or anywhere on earth - is the Baltic region. Quite a coincidence?
In any case, 7000 BC is a long way back, and few others things in Europe compare for age. We are talking here about the OLDEST and LARGEST cemetary in northern Europe. And we are talking about the beginnings of ancestor worship in the form of reverence for the dead, which reached its peak in Egypt.
Cultural Timeline and Elements of Indus Valley Civilization
The Oldest Village, Mehgarh 6,000 BC
Mehgarh is located 125 miles west of the Indus valley, and provides the earliest evidence of village level within the Indus Valley. The initial site is quite small and exhibits evidence of crop farming, with produce such as Asiatic wheat. The site also shows use of domestic goats and extensive trade with the west. Traded goods included turquoise, copper, and cotton from as far away as Arabia. By 5,000 BC the dwellings of the Mehgarh went from simple semi-permanent housing to mud brick, and then large permanent housing. The economy was largely dependent upon trade. Such trends, specifically emphasizing trade, continued well into 4,000 BC when the culture clearly identified as Harappan became evident.
The Early Harappan 4,000 BC to 3,000 BC
From the humble, but rapidly advancing beginning of the Mehgarh, came the eventual arrival of the early Harappan. The early Harappan evidenced very densely packed villages and village centers, all with extensive irrigation systems, and much the same subsistence pattern as the Mehgarh. The early Harappan people planted a wide variety of crops, including barley, and wheat, and did so according to the predictable cycles of the Indus River. The farmers of the Indus would plant their crops as the floods receded between June and September, and by early Spring harvested them. The result of the Harappan civilizations emphasis on agriculture and irrigation lead to a plethora of irrigation systems around which human settlements were built. The settlements along the river were susceptible to periods of violent flooding. In such cases, stone walls were erected as flood barriers. Ironically,these flood barriers eventually became the city walls of some settlements.
The Harappan 2,500 BC. to 2,050 BC
From the Early Harappan arose such settlements as Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, as well as numerous other settlements which spanned roughly 1,000,000 miles of the Indus Valley. The culture of the classical Harappan era surrounded the rivers of the Indus valley and was greatly dependent upon the valley and trade for its subsistence. Indicative of all Harappan sites are the fire mud brick houses and the net-like city plans that took generations to evolve.
The city of "Arad" Ancient Arad is located in the Negev, some 30 km. northeast of Be'er Sheva, on a hill that rises 40 m. above the surrounding plain.
During the 18 seasons of excavation conducted from 1962-1984, it became clear that the remains of ancient Arad are located in two separate areas and are from two distinct periods. The Canaanite city (3rd millennium BCE) was located mainly on the southern slope of the hill. On the summit of this hill, several fortresses were built in the period of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah (10th-6th centuries BCE) and also later, during the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman periods (5th century BCE to 4th century CE). In the Early Arab period (7th-10th century), a fortified caravansary was established to protect the trade routes which passed there.
Arad is mentioned in the Bible in the story of the failed attempt to reach the Promised Land (Numbers 21:1) and in the list of the Canaanite kings defeated by the Children of Israel. (Joshua 12:14) There exists, however, a historical-chronological problem with this biblical account, as there is no evidence that Tel (Heb., mound) Arad was inhabited during the Late Bronze Age. Scholars suggest that the King of Arad mentioned in the Bible was in fact the ruler of the Kingdom of Arad, "the Negev of Arad" (Judges 1:16), whose capital was another city.
The Canaanite City
During the Early Bronze Age (2950-2650 BCE), Arad was a large, fortified and prosperous city. It served as the capital of the important Canaanite kingdom, which ruled over a large part of the northern Negev. The growth of Arad was part of the rapid urbanization of the Land of Israel during the 3rd millennium BCE. Technological development, such as the use of metal for plowing, the domestication of animals and the planting of fruit trees, created conditions for the establishment of large cities, even in outlying areas such as Arad.
The climate in this region is hot and dry and the amount of precipitation is minimal, but the prosperity of a large Canaanite city must have depended on an established agriculture. In the view of experts, the Negev enjoyed in the past twice the amount of rain that falls today, thus making intensive agriculture possible. The Canaanite inhabitants of Arad grew wheat, barley and beans in the valley, and constructed earth dams in the wadis (dry river beds) to increase the amount of water for the orchards, mainly olive groves. Bones of goats, sheep and cattle, found in the ruins of the city's houses, attest to another element in the inhabitants' diet. The city was located at the crossroads of two main trade routes - the one southward from the Judean Hills to the Negev and Edom, and the other westward from the shores of the Dead Sea, across the Negev, to the southern coast - which also contributed to the prosperity of ancient Arad.
Canaanite Arad developed close trade relations with Egypt, evidence of which are the numerous vessels made in Egypt, and a fragment of a ceramic storage jar bearing the name of Narmer, King of Egypt, found at Arad. Copper objects from the royal mines in Sinai were acquired by the inhabitants of Arad, and probably paid for with agricultural products, olive oil and livestock. Bitumen originating from the Dead Sea, used for the sealing of sailing vessels as well as storage jars, and possibly also for mummifying, also made its way from the Dead Sea via Arad to Egypt.
Canaanite Arad covered an area of about 25 acres and had an estimated population of 2,500. The city was surrounded by a fortified wall, some 1,250 m. long and 2.4 m. thick, with many semi-circular or rectangular towers projecting from it. Two gates and two posterns have been found thus far in the wall.
The city itself was very carefully planned, with a network of streets. Along the inside of the wall was the main ring road; and from the gates ran cross streets towards the topographical depression at the city's center, which drained rainwater into a large reservoir, thus guaranteeing continued water supply during the long summers. The part of the city which has been excavated, was divided into quarters, each with a specific function: in the western part was the temple complex; in the south the residential areas.
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The city of "Armarna" founded buy
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"Australia" is the oldest and least known land
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There are many ancient sites in "Britain" that date from neolithic times
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"Catal Hyuck" is an ancient city
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There are many places in ancient "China" as it was the part of the trade route for silk
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One of the most ancient chalcolithic temples is "En Gedi" in the Judan homeland
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One of the places occupied by the tribe of Gad is "Gilead"
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The "Indus" valley has been home to many civilizations
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The reason why the "Temple" in Jerusalem was needed to be built has its origins in the ancient biblical history of the Judan
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"Mesopetainia" has been home to many civilizations
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Many ancient places were used to thresh out the grain from the chaff, they had to be flat and high enough to catch the wind, one such place was
called "Jebus", the place where the Temple of the Judan
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